Sunday, October 31, 2010

Part 1: Query 152

Whether it can be hoped that private persons will not indulge this folly, unless restrained by the public?

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Part 1: Query 151

Whether nine-tenths of our foreign trade be not carried on singly to support the article of vanity?

Friday, October 29, 2010

Part 1: Query 150

Whether an Irish lady, set out with French silks and Flanders lace, may not be said to consume more beef and butter than a hundred of our labouring peasants?

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Part 1: Query 149

Whether a foreigner could imagine that one half of the people were starving, in a country which sent out such plenty of provisions?

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Part 1: Query 148

Whether it be not certain that from the single town of Cork were exported, in one year, no less than one hundred and seven thousand one hundred and sixty-one barrels of beef; seven thousand three hundred and seventy-nine barrels of pork; thirteen thousand four hundred and sixty-one casks, and eighty-five thousand seven hundred and twenty-seven firkins of butter? And what hands were employed in this manufacture?

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Part 1: Query 147

Whether a woman of fashion ought not to be declared a public enemy?

Monday, October 25, 2010

Part 1: Query 146

Whether we are not undone by fashions made for other people? And whether it be not madness in a poor nation to imitate a rich one?

Sunday, October 24, 2010

Part 1: Query 145

Whether it be true that we import corn to the value of two hundred thousand pounds in some years?

Saturday, October 23, 2010

Part 1: Query 144

Whether there be any other nation possess'd of so much good land, and so many able hands to work it, which yet is beholden for bread to foreign countries?

Friday, October 22, 2010

Part 1: Query 143

Whether it be not vain to think of persuading other people to see their interest, while we continue blind to our own?

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Part 1: Query 142

Be the restraining our trade well or ill advised in our neighbours, with respect to their own interest, yet whether it be not plainly ours to accommodate ourselves to it?

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Part 1: Query 141

What should hinder us from exerting ourselves, using our hands and brains, doing something or other, man, woman, and child, like the other inhabitants of God's earth?

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Part 1: Query 140

Whether, if there was a wall of brass a thousand cubits high round this kingdom, our natives might not nevertheless live cleanly and comfortably, till the land, and reap the fruits of it?

Monday, October 18, 2010

Part 1: Query 139

Whether, nevertheless, there is any other people whose wants may be more easily supplied from home?

Sunday, October 17, 2010

Part 1: Query 138

Whether there be upon earth any Christian or civilized people so beggarly, wretched, and destitute as the common Irish?

Saturday, October 16, 2010

Part 1: Query 137

Whether in all public institutions there should not be an end proposed, which is to be the rule and limit of the means? Whether this end should not be the well-being of the whole? And whether, in order to this, the first step should not be to clothe and feed our people?

Friday, October 15, 2010

Part 1: Query 136

Whether the number and welfare of the subjects be not the true strength of the crown?

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Part 1: Query 135

Whether, nevertheless, it be a crime to inquire how far we may do without foreign trade, and what would follow on such a supposition?

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Part 1: Query 134

Whether a general habit of living well would not produce numbers and industry and whether, considering the tendency of human kind, the consequence thereof would not be foreign trade and riches, how unnecessary soever [sic]?

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Part 1: Query 133

Whether, upon the whole, a domestic trade may not suffice in such a country as Ireland, to nourish and clothe its inhabitants, and provide them with the reasonable conveniences and even comforts of life?

Monday, October 11, 2010

Part 1: Query 132

Whether they may not eat, drink, play, dress, visit, sleep in good beds, sit by good fires, build, plant, raise a name, make estates, and spend them?

Sunday, October 10, 2010

Part 1: Query 131

Whether in such a state the inhabitants may not contrive to pass the twenty-four hours with tolerable ease and cheerfulness? And whether any people upon earth can do more?

Saturday, October 9, 2010

Part 1: Query 130

Whether Ireland be not as well qualified for such a state as any nation under the sun?

Friday, October 8, 2010

Part 1: Query 129

Qu. Whether one may not be allowed to conceive and suppose a society or nation of human creatures, clad in woollen cloths and stuffs, eating good bread, beef and mutton, poultry and fish, in great plenty, drinking ale, mead, and cider, inhabiting decent houses built of brick and marble, taking their pleasure in fair parks and gardens, depending on no foreign imports either for food or raiment? And whether such people ought much to be pitied?

Thursday, October 7, 2010

Part 1: Query 128

Whether the apology which is made for foreign luxury in England, to wit, that they could not carry on their trade without imports as well as exports, will hold in Ireland?

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Part 1: Query 127

Whether an expense in gardens and plantations would not be an elegant distinction for the rich, a domestic magnificence employing many hands within, and drawing nothing from abroad?

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Part 1: Query 126

Whether anything is a nobler ornament, in the eye of the world, than an Italian palace, that is, stone and mortar skilfully put together, and adorned with sculpture and painting; and whether this may not be compassed without foreign trade?

Monday, October 4, 2010

Part 1: Query 125

Whether larger houses, better built and furnished, a greater train of servants, the difference with regard to equipage and table between finer and coarser, more and less elegant, may not be sufficient to feed a reasonable share of vanity, or support all proper distinctions? And whether all these may not be procured by domestic industry out of the four elements, without ransacking the four quarters of the globe?

Sunday, October 3, 2010

Part 1: Query 124

Whether plaster be not warmer, as well as more secure, than deal? And whether a modern fashionable house, lined with fir, daubed over with oil and paint, be not like a fire-ship, ready to be lighted up by all accidents?

Saturday, October 2, 2010

Part 1: Query 123

Whether tiles and plaster may not supply the place of Norway fir for flooring and wainscot?

Friday, October 1, 2010

Part 1: Query 122

Whether we have not, or may not have, all the necessary materials for building at home?

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Part 1: Query 120

Whether a nation within itself might not have real wealth, sufficient to give its inhabitants power and distinction, without the help of gold and silver?

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Part 1: Query 119

Whether, if drunkenness be a necessary evil, men may not as well drink the growth of their own country?

Monday, September 27, 2010

Part 1: Query 118

Suppose the bulk of our inhabitants had shoes to their feet, clothes to their backs, and beef in their bellies, might not such a state be eligible for the public, even though the squires were condemned to drink ale and cider?

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Part 1: Query 117

Whether the women may not sew, spin, weave, embroider sufficiently for the embellishment of their persons, and even enough to raise envy in each other, without being beholden to foreign countries?

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Part 1: Query 116

Whether the exigencies of nature are not to be answered by industry on our own soil? And how far the conveniences and comforts of life may be procured by a domestic commerce between the several parts of this kingdom?

Friday, September 24, 2010

Part 1: Query 115

Might we not put a hand to the plough, or the spade, although we had no foreign commerce?

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Part 1: Query 121

Whether, if the arts of sculpture and painting were encouraged among us, we might not furnish our houses in a much nobler manner with our own manufactures?

Part 1: Query 114

Whether there is not a great difference between Holland and Ireland? And whether foreign commerce, without which the one could not subsist, be so necessary for the other?

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Part 1: Query 113

Whether comfortable living doth not produce wants, and wants industry, and industry wealth?

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Part 1: Query 112

Whether the dirt, and famine, and nakedness of the bulk of our people might not be remedied, even although we had no foreign trade? And whether this should not be our first care; and whether, if this were once provided for, the conveniences of the rich would not soon follow?

Monday, September 20, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 10--Powers of the States and People

Ratified 12/15/1791
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Do the individual States wield too much power? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 111

Whether, as our trade is limited, we ought not to limit our expenses; and whether this be not the natural and obvious remedy?

Sunday, September 19, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 9--Construction of Constitution

Ratified 12/15/1791
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

How might one citizen’s rights infringe upon another citizen’s rights, and how can we balance those rights?

Part 1: Query 110

Whether those who drink foreign liquors, and deck themselves and their families with foreign ornaments, are not so far forth to be reckoned absentees?

Saturday, September 18, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 8--Cruel and Unusual Punishment

Ratified 12/15/1791
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

What is “cruel and unusual punishment”? In other words, does this mean that the punishment should fit the crime, or is the death penalty too cruel for even a cold-blooded killer? Explain.

Part 1: Query 109

Whether nations, as wise and opulent as ours, have not made sumptuary laws; and what hinders us from doing the same?

Friday, September 17, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 7--Trial by Jury in Civil Cases

Ratified 12/15/1791
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

How might the seventh amendment be at least partially responsible for the overburdened U.S. judicial system?

Part 1: Query 108

How far the vanity of our ladies in dressing, and of our gentlemen in drinking, contributes to the general misery of the people?

Thursday, September 16, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 6--Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses

Ratified 12/15/1791
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

While the right to a speedy trial and the right to counsel are ironclad rights, what often happens to poor or even middle class defendants? How might the legal representation of the rich differ from the representation of those of modest means?

Part 1: Query 107

What the nation gains by those who live in Ireland upon the produce of foreign Countries?

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 5--Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings

Ratified 12/15/1791
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

What is “double jeopardy,” and why is the phrase “nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb” so important to the U.S. judicial system?

Part 1: Query 106

Whether it would not be more reasonable to mend our state than to complain of it; and how far this may be in our own power?

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 4--Search and Seizure

Ratified 12/15/1791
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

What is “probable cause”?

Part 1: Query 105

Whether, as our exports are lessened, we ought not to lessen our imports? And whether these will not be lessened as our demands, and these as our wants, and these as our customs or fashions? Of how great consequence therefore are fashions to the public?

Monday, September 13, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 3--Quartering of Soldiers

Ratified 12/15/1791
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

If Amendment 3 did not exist, how might the lives of U.S citizens be different?

Part 1: Query 104

Whether large farms under few hands, or small ones under many, are likely to be made most of? And whether flax and tillage do not naturally multiply hands, and divide land into small holdings, and well-improved?

Sunday, September 12, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 2--Right to Bear Arms

Ratified 12/15/1791
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Had our forefathers been able to predict the evolution of arms (for example, the invention of powerful weapons, such as AK-47’s and even nuclear technology), would the second amendment be worded differently? If so, how? If not, why might an absolute freedom still be necessary?

Part 1: Query 103

Whether every landlord in the kingdom doth not know the cause of this? And yet how few are the better for such their knowledge?

Saturday, September 11, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Amendment 1--Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression

Ratified 12/15/1791
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Are these three freedoms absolute? If not, explain why and how these freedoms may or should be curtailed.
On this 9th anniversary of 9/11, the webmaster believes that the freedoms of religion, press, and expression are especially important. Our soldiers have died defending these freedoms, which extend to all citizens and foreigners residing in the U.S., no matter their beliefs and religion.

Please keep the First amendment in your heart.

Part 1: Query 102

Whether the county of Tipperary be not much better land than the county of Armagh; and yet whether the latter is not much better improved and inhabited than the former?

Friday, September 10, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article VII, Ratification

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven [1787] and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names.
Go Washington - President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut - Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York - Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey - Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pennsylvania - B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware - Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom

Maryland - James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia - John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina - Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina - J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia - William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary
Overall, how well have the basic Articles of the Federation served the U.S.? Not served the U.S. well?

Part 1: Query 101

Whether anything can be more ridiculous than for the north of Ireland to be jealous of a linen manufacturer in the south?

Thursday, September 9, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article VI, Debts, Supremacy, Oaths

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Consider this last statement in Article VI:
...No religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
What, if any, repercussions should this statement have on an elected official's real or perceived religious affiliation? In addition, how relevant is an elected official's religious status? In light of the current "war on terror," should this part of article VI be changed to exclude certain "undesirable" elements? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 100

Whether a mint in Ireland might not be of great convenience to the kingdom; and whether it could be attended with any possible inconvenience to Great Britain? And whether there were not mints in Naples and Sicily, when those kingdoms were provinces to Spain or the house of Austria?

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article V, Amendment

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Is this process, as spelled out by Article V, the ideal means for creating amendments to the constitution of the United States? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 99

Whether it be not our true interest not to interfere with them; and, in every other case, whether it be not their true interest to befriend us?

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article IV, The States

Section 4 - Republican government
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

From Wikipedia:
A republic is a form of government in which the people or some portion thereof retain supreme control over the government, and in which the head of government is not a monarch.
What are some advantages and disadvantages of being a republic?

Part 1: Query 98

Whether we are not as much Englishmen as the children of old Romans, born in Britain, were still Romans?

Monday, September 6, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article IV, The States

Section 3 - New States
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Should individual states or parts of states be allowed to secede from the union and set up their own laws and constitutions? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 97

Whether the upper part of this people are not truly English, by blood, language, religion, manners, inclination, and interest?

Sunday, September 5, 2010

Part 1: Query 96

Whether it be not the true interest of both nations to become one people? And whether either be sufficiently apprised of this?

The Constitution of the United States: Article IV, The States

Section 2 - State citizens, Extradition
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

(No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.)

The above clause in parentheses is superseded by the 13th Amendment, as follows:

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Based on the substantial change made via the 13th Amendment, is the majority always correct? Why or why not?

Saturday, September 4, 2010

Part 1: Query 95

Whether our hankering after our woollen trade be not the true and only reason which hath created a jealousy in England towards Ireland? And whether anything can hurt us more than such jealousy?

The Constitution of the United States: Article IV, The States

Section 1 - Each State to Honor all others
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Should states' rights be absolute? Why or why not?

Friday, September 3, 2010

Part 1: Query 94

Whether the employing so much of our land under sheep be not in fact an Irish blunder?

The Constitution of the United States: Article III, The Judicial Branch

Section 3 - Treason Note
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Should treason always be punishable by death? Why or why not?

Thursday, September 2, 2010

Part 1: Query 93

Whether it be not a sure sign or effect of a country's inhabitants? And, thriving, to see it well cultivated and full of; if so, whether a great quantity of sheep-walk be not ruinous to a country, rendering it waste and thinly inhabited?

The Constitution of the United States: Article III, The Judicial Branch

Section 2 - Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury Trials
(The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.)

(The above section in parentheses is modified by the 11th Amendment, as follows: "The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.")

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the Supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

How might our system of Jury by Trial be improved?

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Part 1: Query 92

Whether other countries have not flourished without the woollen trade?

The Constitution of the United States: Article III, The Judicial Branch

Section 1 - Judicial powers
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Should the term of Supreme Court Justice remain a lifetime appointment or should the appointment of Justice have a finite term, for example, ten years? Why or why not?

Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Part 1: Query 91

If all the land were tilled that is fit for tillage, and all that sowed with hemp and flax that is fit for raising them, whether we should have much sheep-walk beyond what was sufficient to supply the necessities of the kingdom?

The Constitution of the United States: Article II, The Executive Branch

Section 4 - Disqualification
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Should such removal be contingent upon the will of the people or limited to the powers of Congress? Why or why not?

Monday, August 30, 2010

Part 1: Query 90

How long it will be before my countrymen find out that it is worth while to spend a penny in order to get a groat?

The Constitution of the United States: Article II, The Executive Branch

Section 3 - State of the Union, Convening Congress
[The President] shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Should another check and balance be added to the office of the presidency, thus limiting his or her powers? Why or why not?

Sunday, August 29, 2010

Part 1: Query 89

How it comes to pass that the Venetians and Genoese, who wear so much less linen, and so much worse than we do, should yet make very good paper, and in great quantity, while we make very little?

21st Century: Query 50

In his August 29, 2010 newspaper column "Scaring White People," Bill O’Reilly says,
With polls showing that about 70 percent of Americans believe building an Islamic cultural center containing a mosque just two blocks away from Ground Zero is inappropriate, the far left is once again on the run. Failing with the bogus "freedom of religion" argument, the crew that is offended by the manger scene at Christmas is now saying the mosque controversy is another attempt to "scare white people." Washington Post columnist Eugene Robinson has put forth that loopy argument from his second home: MSNBC.

Full article
In what way would “freedom of religion” be a “bogus argument”? In what ways would this argument NOT be a "bogus argument?

The Constitution of the United States: Article II, The Executive Branch

Section 2 - Civilian Power over Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Should presidents retain such absolute power when filling appointments and vacancies? Why or why not?

Saturday, August 28, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article II, The Executive Branch

Section 1 - The President

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

(The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.) (This clause in parentheses was superseded by the 12th Amendment.)

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing [choosing] the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

(In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.) (This clause in parentheses has been modified by the 20th and 25th Amendments.)

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Should the presidential primary be held on the same day for all 50 states (and territories), for example, the first Tuesday in April, May, or June? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 88

Whether paper be not a valuable article of commerce? And whether it be not true that one single bookseller in London yearly expended above four thousand pounds in that foreign commodity?

Friday, August 27, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 10 - Powers prohibited of States
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's [its] inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul [control] of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Should states be allowed to maintain a state militia? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 87

Whether the prohibition of our woollen trade ought not naturally to put us on other methods which give no jealousy?

Thursday, August 26, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 9 - Limits on Congress
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

(No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.) [Section in parentheses clarified by the 16th Amendment: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”]

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

Should stronger limits be placed on Congress? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 86

How far it may be in our own power to better our affairs, without interfering with our neighbours?

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 8 - Powers of Congress
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Should stronger limits be placed on Congress? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 85

Whether if all the idle hands in this kingdom were employed on hemp and flax, we might not find sufficient vent for these manufactures?

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 7 - Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto
All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Should the practice of tacking on “sneaky amendments” to individual Bills be eliminated and the essence of each bill summarized on page 1 a requirement? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 84

Whether, if our own people want will or capacity for such an attempt, it might not be worth while for some undertaking spirits in England to make settlements, and raise hemp in the counties of Clare and Limerick, than which, perhaps, there is not fitter land in the world for that purpose? And whether both nations would not find their advantage therein?

Monday, August 23, 2010

21st Century: Query 49

Is an online education as good as classroom, face-to-face education? Why or why not?

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 6 – Compensation
(The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.) [The preceding words in parentheses were modified by the 27th Amendment: “No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.”] They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Should senators and representatives be allowed to determine compensation for its own governing body? In other words, should an independent body, not answerable to the President or Congress, determine their compensation, including benefits?

Part 1: Query 83

Whether Ireland alone might not raise hemp sufficient for the British navy? And whether it would not be vain to expect this from the British Colonies in America, where hands are so scarce, and labour so excessively dear?

Sunday, August 22, 2010

21st Century: Query 48

Even if President Barack Obama were a Muslim, should it matter? Why or why not?

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 5 - Membership, Rules, Journals, Adjournment
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Should senators and representatives be required to convene from September 1 to May 31, five days a week, except for personal days, government holidays, and personal religious obligations? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 82

Whether there be anything more profitable than hemp? And whether there should not be great premiums for encouraging our hempen trade? What advantages may not Great Britain make of a country where land and labour are so cheap?

Saturday, August 21, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 4 - Elections, Meetings

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Chusing [choosing] Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall (be on the first Monday in December,) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 20th Amendment, section 2: “The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January,…”) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Should the primary for senators and representatives be held on the same day for all 50 states (and territories), for example, the first Tuesday in April, May, or June? Why or why not?

21st Century: Query 47

Is there solid proof that President Barack Obama is a Muslim? If so, what is it?

Part 1, Query 81

Whether immense sums are not drawn yearly into the Northern countries, for supplying the British navy with hempen manufactures?

Friday, August 20, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 3 - The Senate
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof (see 17th Amendment below for major changes*), for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse [choose] their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

NOTE: *The 17th Amendment made some major changes:
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.
Should term limits be enacted, by amendment, for Senators? If so, why, and how many terms should a senator be allowed to serve?

If not, why?

21st Century: Query 46

Related to Query 31: If you--retaining all knowledge about the future of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich--could go back to 1889, at Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn in Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary where Adolf Hitler was born, would you kidnap the infant Adolf? If not, why? If so, would you raise him yourself or place him in an orphanage?

If you were to raise him, how would you go about this important job?

Do you believe that someone like Adolf Hitler, with the right upbringing, could have grown into an ethical and benevolent leader? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 80

Whether it be true that two millions are yearly expended by England in foreign lace and linen?

Thursday, August 19, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 2 - The House
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

(Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.)

[The previous sentence in parentheses was modified by the 14th Amendment, section 2: “Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State."]

The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse [choose] three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse [choose] their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Is the specified apportionment of the House fair? Why or why not?

Should the first paragraph in section 2 be amended to increase the term of Representatives to four, five, or six years? Why or why not?

IF you agree that representatives should serve longer terms per election, should an amendment be added that would limit the number of terms that a representative can serve, for example, a maximum of 10-15 years? Why or why not?

21st Century: Query 45

Is the majority always right? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 79

Whether it would not be more prudent, to strike out and exert ourselves in permitted branches of trade, than to fold our hands, and repine that we are not allowed the woollen?

Wednesday, August 18, 2010

The Constitution of the United States: Article I, The Legislative Branch

Section 1 - The Legislature
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

How has this legislature model worked well for the U.S.? How has it NOT worked well?

21st Century: Query 44, The U.S. Constitution

A recent Fox News poll showed that while 61 percent of Americans believe that Cordoba House has a constitutional right to build a Mosque near Ground Zero, 64 percent believe it is not appropriate to do so. In addition, 34% of those polled believe that the Cordoba House has NO constitutional right to build a Mosque near Ground Zero.
Full article here
What do you think and why?

Part 1: Query 78

Whether they do not bring ready money as well as jewels? Whether in Italy debts are not paid, and children portioned with them, as with gold and silver?

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Query: The Constitution of the United States, Preamble

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

In 21st century America, how well are we fulfilling our Preamble?

21st Century: Query 43

Should marijuana be legalized in the U.S., all 50 states? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 77

Whether pictures and statues are not in fact so much treasure? And whether Rome and Florence would not be poor towns without them?

Monday, August 16, 2010

Part 1: Query 76

Whether human industry can produce, from such cheap materials, a manufacture of so great value by any other art as by those of sculpture and painting?

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Part 1: Query 75

Whether there be any art sooner learned than that of making carpets? And whether our women, with little time and pains, may not make more beautiful carpets than those imported from Turkey? And whether this branch of the woollen manufacture be not open to us?

Saturday, August 14, 2010

Part 1: Query 74

Whether those who may slight this affair as notional have sufficiently considered the extensive use of the art of design, and its influence in most trades and manufactures, wherein the forms of things are often more regarded than the materials?

Friday, August 13, 2010

Part 1: Query 73

Whether those specimens of our own manufacture, hung up in a certain public place, do not sufficiently declare such our ignorance? and whether for the honour of the nation they ought not to be removed?

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Part 1: Query 72

Whether our linen-manufacture would not find the benefit of this institution? And whether there be anything that makes us fall short of the Dutch in damasks, diapers, and printed linen, but our ignorance in design?

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

Part 1: Query 71

Whether, when a room was once prepared, and models in plaster of Paris, the annual expense of such an academy need stand the pubic in above two hundred pounds a year?

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Part 1: Query 70

Whether France and Flanders could have drawn so much money from England for figured silks, lace, and tapestry, if they had not had academies for designing?

Monday, August 9, 2010

Part 1: Query 69

Whether those same manufactures which England imports from other countries may not be admitted from Ireland? And, if so, whether lace, carpets, and tapestry, three considerable articles of English importation, might not find encouragement in Ireland? And whether an academy for design might not greatly conduce to the perfecting those manufactures among us?

Sunday, August 8, 2010

Part 1: Query 68

Whether a people who had provided themselves with the necessaries of life in good plenty would not soon extend their industry to new arts and new branches of commerce?

Saturday, August 7, 2010

Part 1: Query 67

67. Qu. Whether a country inhabited by people well fed, clothed and lodged would not become every day more populous? And whether a numerous stock of people in such circumstances would? and how far the product of not constitute a flourishing nation; our own country may suffice for the compassing of this end?

Friday, August 6, 2010

Part 1: Query 66

Whether nastiness and beggary do not, on the contrary, extinguish all such ambition, making men listless, hopeless, and slothful?

Thursday, August 5, 2010

Part 1: Query 65

Whether there be any instance of a State wherein the people, living neatly and plentifully, did not aspire to wealth?

Wednesday, August 4, 2010

Part 1: Query 64

Whether to provide plentifully for the poor be not feeding the root, the substance whereof will shoot upwards into the branches, and cause the top to flourish?

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Part 1: Query 63

Whether necessity is not to be hearkened to before convenience, and convenience before luxury?

Monday, August 2, 2010

Part 1: Query 62

Whether, consequently, the fine gentlemen, whose employment is only to dress, drink, and play, be not a pubic nuisance?

Sunday, August 1, 2010

Part 1: Query 61

Whether he whose luxury consumeth foreign products, and whose industry produceth nothing domestic to exchange for them, is not so far forth injurious to his country?

Saturday, July 31, 2010

Part 1: Query 60

Whether it be true that the poor in Holland have no resource but their own labour, and yet there are no beggars in their streets?

Friday, July 30, 2010

Part 1: Query 59

Whether there are not such things in Holland as bettering houses for bringing young gentlemen to order? And whether such an institution would be useless among us?

Thursday, July 29, 2010

Part 1: Query 58

Whether we may not, as well as other nations, contrive employment for them? And whether servitude, chains, and hard labour, for a term of years, would not be a more discouraging as well as a more adequate punishment for felons than even death itself?

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Part 1: Query 57

Whether some way might not be found for making criminals useful in public works, instead of sending them either to America, or to the other world?

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Part 1: Query 56

Whether small gains be not the way to great profit? And if our tradesmen are beggars, whether they may not thank themselves for it?

Monday, July 26, 2010

Part 1: Query 55

Whether cunning be not one thing and good sense another? And whether a cunning tradesman doth not stand in his own light?

Sunday, July 25, 2010

Part 1: Query 54

Whether by how much the less particular folk think for themselves, the public be not so much the more obliged to think for them?

Saturday, July 24, 2010

Part 1: Query 53

Whether if a man builds a house he doth not in the first place provide a plan which governs his work? And shall the pubic act without an end, a view, a plan?

Friday, July 23, 2010

Part 1: Query 52

Whether it be not a bull to call that making an interest, whereby a man spendeth much and gaineth nothing?

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Part 1: Query 51

Whether it would not be an unhappy turn in our gentlemen, if they should take more thought to create an interest to themselves in this or that county, or borough, than to promote the real interest of their country?

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Part 1: Query 50

Whether reflection in the better sort might not soon remedy our evils? And whether our real defect be not a wrong way of thinking?

Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Part 1: Query 49

Whether such men would not all set themselves to work? Whether they would not subsist by the mutual participation of each other's industry? Whether, when one man had in his way procured more than he could consume, he would not exchange his superfluities to supply his wants? Whether this must not produce credit? Whether, to facilitate these conveyances, to record and circulate this credit,they would not soon agree on certain tallies, tokens, tickets, or counters?

Monday, July 19, 2010

Part 1: Query 48

Whether in order to understand the true nature of wealth and commerce, it would not be right to consider a ship's crew cast upon a desert island, and by degrees forming themselves to business and civil life, while industry begot credit, and credit moved to industry?

21st Century: Query 42

Is Geometry Art, and is Art Geometry? Explain.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

Part 1: Query 47

Whether there is in truth any such treasure lying dead? And whether it be of great consequence to the public that it should be real rather than notional?

21st Century: Query 41

What is your life? Describe in eight words.

Saturday, July 17, 2010

Part 1: Query 46

Whether the opinion of men, and their industry consequent thereupon, be not the true wealth of Holland and not the silver supposed to be deposited in the bank at Amsterdam?

21st Century: Query 40

Is there such an absolute as a “True Theology”? If so, what is it, and why? If not, why?

Friday, July 16, 2010

21st Century: Query 39

What happens if curiosity dies?

Part 1: Query 45

Whether even gold or silver, if they should lessen the industry of its inhabitants, would not be ruinous to a country? And whether Spain be not an instance of this?

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Part 1: Query 44

Whether, if human labour be the true source of wealth, it doth not follow that idleness should of all things be discouraged in a wise State?

21st Century: Query 38

What is the most unanswerable question?

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

21st Century: Query 37

If you knew, beyond a shadow of doubt, that there was no afterlife, how would you live your life?

Part 1: Query 43

Whether a single hint be sufficient to overcome a prejudice? And whether even obvious truths will not sometimes bear repeating?

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

21st Century: Query 36

In the above image, what do you see?

Part 1: Query 42

Whether a fertile land, and the industry of its inhabitants, would not prove inexhaustible funds of real wealth, be the counters for conveying and recording thereof what you will, paper, gold, or silver?

Monday, July 12, 2010

21st Century: Query 35

Would you want to know how long you will live? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 41

Whether in the wastes of America a man might not possess twenty miles square of land, and yet want his dinner, or a coat to his back?

Sunday, July 11, 2010

21st Century: Query 34

As an extension to Query 33 (7/10), what happens when poetry itself corrupts?

Part 1: Query 40

Whether it were not wrong to suppose land itself to be wealth? And whether the industry of the people is not first to be consider'd, as that which constitutes wealth, which makes even land and silver to be wealth, neither of which would have, any value but as means and motives to industry?

Saturday, July 10, 2010

Part 1: Query 39

Whether to promote, transfer, and secure this commerce, and this property in human labour, or, in other words, this power, be not the sole means of enriching a people, and how far this may be done independently of gold and silver?

21st Century: Query 33

Official Portrait of President John F. Kennedy (Painting by Aaron Shikler.)

How might the following statement be true or false?
When power leads man toward arrogance, poetry reminds him of his limitations. When power narrows the areas of man's concern, poetry reminds him of the richness and diversity of his existence. When power corrupts, poetry cleanses, for art establishes the basic human truths which must serve as the touchstone of our judgment.
--John F. Kennedy, Address at Amherst College, October 26, 1963

Friday, July 9, 2010

21st Century: Query 32

With whom would you most like to be stuck in an elevator? Least like?
Source: Brain Candy, 7/9

Part 1: Query 38

Whether trade, either foreign or domestic, be in truth any more than this commerce of industry?

Thursday, July 8, 2010

21st Century: Query 31

Adolf Hitler, 1889

If you--retaining all knowledge about the future of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich--could go back to 1889, at Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn in Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary where Adolf Hitler was born, could you kill the infant Adolf? Would you kill him? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 37

Whether power to command the industry of others be not real wealth? And whether money be not in truth tickets or tokens for conveying and recording such power, and whether it be of great consequence what materials the tickets are made of?

Wednesday, July 7, 2010

21st Century: Query 30

How might “madness” simply be a characteristic of “art”?

Part 1: Query 36

Provided the wheels move, whether it is not the same thing, as to the effect of the machine, be this done by the force of wind, or water, or animals?

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

21st Century: Query 29

If you could personally witness one important event in history, what would it be, and why this particular event?

Part 1: Query 35

Whether current bank notes may not be deemed money? And whether they are not actually the greater part of the money of this kingdom?

Monday, July 5, 2010

21st Century: Query 28

Should children be sheltered from unhappiness? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 34

Whether if there was no silver or gold in the kingdom, our trade might not, nevertheless, supply bills of exchange, sufficient to answer the demands of absentees in England or elsewhere?

Sunday, July 4, 2010

21st Century: Query 27

Peter Abelard, a French theologian, posed this dilemma:
If you suffer a great loss without knowing it, do you lose anything at all?

Part 1: Query 33

Whether it be not the opinion or will of the people, exciting them to industry, that truly enricheth a nation? And whether this doth not principally depend on the means for counting, transferring, and preserving power, that is, property of all kinds?

Saturday, July 3, 2010

Part 1: Query 32

Whether there be any vertue in gold or silver, other than as they set people at work, or create industry?

21st Century: Query 26

Valerie Elverton Dixon, Founder of and former teacher of Christian Ethics at Andover Newton (Mass.) Theological School and United Theological Seminary in Ohio, says,
“I hope animals have souls. They must have spirits because the spirit is the breath. I hope that animals have soul/spirit that survives this life because I look forward to seeing my dog again after death, just as I look forward to seeing relatives and friends who have passed from this earthly life.”
--Source: On Faith: God Must Love Dogs, The Washington Post
If there is any possibility for animals to have souls, to what degree should non-humans be granted equal rights to that of humans?

Friday, July 2, 2010

Part 1: Query 31

What makes a wealthy people? Whether mines of gold and silver are capable of doing this? And whether the Negroes, amidst the gold sands of Africa, are not poor and destitute?

21st Century: Query 25

In Looking Back While Thinking Ahead (Psychiatric Times), Greg Eghigian, Director of the Science, Technology, and Society Program and Associate Professor of Modern History and Science, Technology, and Society at Penn State University, observes that
At its heart, madness has consistently been an existential matter, meaning that it prompts us to pose fundamental questions about who we are, what makes us human, what constitutes a good life, and the degree to which we are the authors of that life.
What is “madness”? And how should we define it, irrespective of modern diagnostic manuals, such as the myriad DSM editions?

Thursday, July 1, 2010

21st Century: Query 24

In his New York Times article Should This be the Last Generation? Peter Singer poses this question:
How good does life have to be, to make it reasonable to bring a child into the world?

Part 1: Query 30

Whether the English crown did not formerly pass with us for six shillings? And what inconvenience ensued to the public upon its reduction to the present value, and whether what hath been may not be?

Wednesday, June 30, 2010

21st Century: Query 23

What is the most important lesson you have learned in life?

Part 1: Query 29

Whether, nevertheless, the damage would be very considerable, if by degrees our money were brought back to the English value there to rest for ever?

Tuesday, June 29, 2010

21st Century: Query 22

Is marriage irrelevant? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 28

Whether arbitrary changing the denomination of coin be not a public cheat?

Monday, June 28, 2010

Part 1: Query 27

Whether an equal raising of all sorts of gold, silver, and copper coin can have any effect in bringing money into the kingdom? And whether altering the proportions between the kingdom several sorts can have any other effect but multiplying one kind and lessening another, without any increase of the sum total?

21st Century: Query 21

If you encountered Osama bin Laden and the only way to capture him were to kill him, would you feel a moral obligation to do so, or would you feel morally obligated to allow him to go free?

Sunday, June 27, 2010

21st Century: Query 20

Should law enforcement be comfortable with prayer being used as a technique to garner confessions from suspects?
Mark Osler, The Huffington Post

Part 1: Query 26

Whether the denominations being retained, although the bullion were gone, things might not nevertheless be rated, bought, and sold, industry promoted, and a circulation of commerce maintained?

Saturday, June 26, 2010

21st Century: Query 19 philosophers produce and what skills will they give us that will improve our chances of landing a good job, that is, a highly profitable job (which will get us fancy cars, big Tuscan-style mansions, and make us irresistibly sexy)?
Pedro Tabensky, DispatchOnline

Part 1: Query 25

Whether the terms crown, livre, pound sterling, etc., are not to be considered as exponents or denominations of such proportion? And whether gold, silver, and paper are not tickets or counters for reckoning, recording, and transferring thereof?

Friday, June 25, 2010

21st Century: Query 18

Do rocks have a soul?

Part 1: Query 24

Whether the value or price of things be not a compounded proportion, directly as the demand, and reciprocally as the plenty?

Thursday, June 24, 2010

21st Century: Query 17

Is the systematic destruction of the environment by humanity a progression of earth’s natural life cycle? Why or why not?

Part 1: Query 23

Whether money is to be considered as having an intrinsic value, or as being a commodity, a standard, a measure, or a pledge, as is variously suggested by writers? And whether the true idea of money, as such, be not altogether that of a ticket or counter?

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

21st Century: Query 16

How might the Internet Age change society in a positive way? A negative way?

Part 1: Query 22

Whether, therefore, less money swiftly circulating, be not, in effect, equivalent to more money slowly circulating? Or, whether, if the circulation be reciprocally as the quantity of coin, the nation can be a loser?

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Part 1: Query 21

Whether other things being given, as climate, soil, etc., the wealth be not proportioned to the industry, and this to the circulation of credit, be the credit circulated or transferred by what marks or tokens soever?

21st Century: Query 15

Who should decide “What is pornography”?

Monday, June 21, 2010

Part 1: Query 20

Whether the creating of wants be not the likeliest way to produce industry in a people? And whether, if our peasants were accustomed to eat beef and wear shoes, they would not be more industrious?

21st Century: Query 14

Who should decide the following question: “What is art?” The audience? The artist? The publisher? The gallery? Advertisers?

Sunday, June 20, 2010

Part 1: Query 19

Whether the bulk of our Irish natives are not kept from thriving, by that cynical content in dirt and beggary which they possess to a degree beyond any other people in Christendom?

21st Century: Query 13

How might the celebrity culture diminish or enhance society?

Saturday, June 19, 2010

Part 1: Query 18

Whether frugal fashions in the upper rank, and comfortable living in the lower, be not the means to multiply inhabitants?

2st Century: Query 12

Is freedom of expression really free?

Friday, June 18, 2010

Part 1: Query 17

Whether the imitating those neighbours in our fashions, to whom we bear no likeness in our circumstances, be not one cause of distress to this nation?

21st Century: Query 11

Should pornography (depicting two consenting adults who are not being exploited by a third party) be permitted in an advanced culture? Why or why not?

Topical Query: 6/18/10

From David Plouffe, Organizing for America, in a June 18 email to the webmaster:
When BP CEO Tony Hayward testified before Congress [on June 17], many expected to hear him apologize for the disaster his company has caused. Instead, GOP Congressman Joe Barton was the one saying he was sorry -- to BP.

In his opening statement, Barton, the top Republican on the committee overseeing the oil spill and its aftermath, delivered a personal apology to the oil giant. He said the $20 billion fund that President Obama directed BP to establish to provide relief to the victims of the oil disaster was a "tragedy in the first proportion."
Many Republicans, who are adamantly pro-business, agree with Congressman Barton's assessment.

What do you think? Should foreign corporations who do business in the U.S. be given a "pass" when their equipment fails and threatens the livelihood of U.S. citizens, or should they be financially responsible for their mistakes?

Thursday, June 17, 2010

21st Century: Query 10

What is the “omnipresence”?

Topical Query: 6/17/10

Tony Hayward, Chief Executive of BP, in a prepared transcript released today prior to giving his testimony before Congress, nearly two months after the disastrous oil rig explosion that took 11 lives:
When I learned that 11 men had lost their lives in the explosion and fire on the Deepwater Horizon, I was personally devastated.

I want to speak directly to the people who live and work in the Gulf region: I know that this incident has profoundly impacted lives and caused turmoil, and I deeply regret that. Indeed, this is personal for us at BP. For decades, the people of the Gulf Coast states have extended their hospitality to us and to the companies like Arco and Amoco that are now part of BP. We have always strived to be a good neighbor.
Sources: CNN and The Guardian (Full transcript)
How can BP atone for the loss of life and the ensuing ecological disaster that is occurring and will continue to occur for decades?

Part 1: Query 16

Whether customs and fashions do not supply the place of reason in the vulgar of all ranks? Whether, therefore, it doth not very much import that they should be wisely framed?

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

21st Century: Query 9

Park Hyo-chong, JoongAng Daily, observes that Plato understood that “... a country must be run by episteme, or a truly intellectual body of ideas, and should not be driven by doxa, or false popular opinions.”

True or false? Why?

Part 1: Query 15

Whether a general good taste in a people would not greatly conduce to their thriving? And whether an uneducated gentry be not the greatest of national evils?

Topical Query: 6/16/10

Today, Apple has begun the pre-ordering process for the iphone 4. Overall, how has the mobile phone enhanced and/or vulgarized our culture?

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

21st Century: Query 8

Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) once said,
There is a certain respect, and a general duty of humanity, that attaches us not only to animals, who have life and feeling, but even to trees and plants. We owe justice to men, and mercy and kindness to other creatures that may be capable of receiving it. There is some relationship between them and us, and some mutual obligation.
How might this statement be true or false?

Part 1: Query 14

Whether reasonable fashions are a greater restraint on freedom than those which are unreasonable?

Topical Query: 6/15/10

According to CNN News, Arizona is considering passing a law that would deny birth certificates to children born to illegal aliens. How might that kind of policy affect the law of the land and the Constitution of the United States?

Monday, June 14, 2010

21st Century: Query 7

How can animals teach us how to be more human?

Part 1: Query 13

Whether it may not concern the wisdom of the legislature to interpose in the making of fashions; and not leave an affair of so great influence to the management of women and fops, tailors and vintners?

Sunday, June 13, 2010

21st Century: Query 6

What does it mean to be Christian (and seeking social justice)?

(question from

Part 1: Query 12

Whether it be not owing to custom that the fashions are agreeable?

Saturday, June 12, 2010

21st Century: Query 5

Should convicted child molesters who have served their prison sentences be allowed to live among the general population? If so, how should we protect children from them?

Part 1: Query 11

Whether the current of industry and commerce be not determined by this prevailing will?

Friday, June 11, 2010

21st Century: Query 4

How should the presidency of George W. Bush be judged?

Part 1: Query 10

Whether fashion doth not create appetites; and whether the prevailing will of a nation is not the fashion?

Thursday, June 10, 2010

21st Century: Query 3

Should financial institutions be government regulated and allowed to fail?

Part 1: Query 9

Whether power be not referred to action; and whether action doth not follow appetite or will?

Wednesday, June 9, 2010

21st Century: Query 2

Should people of means--the middle and the wealthy classes--give aid to the poor who refuse to work?

Part 1: Query 8

Whether the public aim in every well-govern'd State be not that each member, according to his just pretensions and industry, should have power?

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

21st Century: Query 1

Who is responsible for ecological disasters caused by private industry? Government? The people? The perpetrators? Who is responsible for fixing the disasters?

Part 1: Query 7

Whether the real end and aim of men be not power? And whether he who could have everything else at his wish or will would value money?

Part 1: Query 6

Whether any other means, equally conducing to excite and circulate the industry of mankind, may not be as useful as money.

Part 1: Query 5

Whether money be not only so far useful, as it stirreth up industry, enabling men mutually to participate the fruits of each other's labour?

Part 1: Query 4

Whether the four elements, and man's labour therein, be not the true source of wealth?

Part 1: Query 3

Whether the drift and aim of every wise State should not be, to encourage industry in its members? And whether those who employ neither heads nor hands for the common benefit deserve not to be expelled like drones out of a well-governed State?

Part 1: Query 2

Whether a people can be called poor, where the common sort are well fed, clothed, and lodged?

Part 1: Query 1

Whether there ever was, is, or will be, an industrious nation poor, or an idle rich?